[33] Small numbers of Turkish soldiers and Libyan volunteers were later organized by Captain Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Storia degli avvenimenti della Guerra Italo-Turca, p. 192. [26] Most of the Somalian troops stationed would only return home in 1935, when they were transferred back to Italian Somaliland in preparation for the invasion of Ethiopia. However, it was in opposition and also divided on the issue. It was fancifully depicted as rich in minerals, well-watered, and defended by only 4,000 Ottoman troops. [41] Although Italian authorities attempted to keep the news of the massacre from getting out, the incident soon became internationally known. Non mi è possibile mangiare. A lack of coordination between the Italian units sent from Derna as reinforcements and the intervention of Turkish artillery threatened the Italian line, and the Libyans attempted to surround the Italian troops. Photographs and writings of a French war correspondent during the Italo-Turkish war in Libya (1911-1912). The result was to consolidate Catholic war culture among devout Italians, which was soon expanded to include the world war (1915–18). The invasion of Libya was a costly enterprise for Italy. La debolezza dimostrata dall'impero ottomano apre la strada alla prima guerra balcanica, che instaura una catena d'eventi che porterà alla prima guerra … Le terre sottomesse in nord Africa furono chiamate col nome usato dai Romani: Libia. [46] The Italian control over much of the interior of Libya remained ineffective until the late 1920s, when forces under the Generals Pietro Badoglio and Rodolfo Graziani waged bloody pacification campaigns. In the summer of 1912, Italy began operations against the Turkish possessions in the Aegean Sea with the approval of the other powers that were eager to end a war that was lasting much longer than expected. La guerra di Libia, 1911/1912, Libia 1922-1931 le operazioni militari italiane, Storia delle fanterie italiane - Le Fanterie Italiane nelle guerre coloniali, La guerra lirica. La testa mi gira maledettamente. - V. Lioy - L'opera dell'Aeronautica - Opera citata, p. 37. Il periodo delle operazioni che dava diritto a ricevere l'onorificenza andava dal 29 settembre 1911 (inizio del conflitto) al 18 ottobre 1912 quando l'Italia occupò la Libia, Rodi e le isole del Dodecaneso. Non posso stare in piedi. - La guerra italo-turca, iniziata con la dichiarazione di guerra dell'Italia alla Turchia (29 settembre 1911), si concluse con la pace di Losanna sottoscritta il 18 ottobre 1912. [32], At Derna the Turks and Libyans were estimated at 3,500, but they were being constantly reinforced and a general assault on the Italian position was expected. The population was largely Greek, and by treaty in 1947 the islands eventually became part of Greece.[56]. II - Milano. The treaty was signed at Lausanne at 16.45 of October 18, 1912. Ministry of Culture of Turkey, edited by Turkish Armed Forces-Division of History and Strategical Studies, pages 62–65, Ankara, 1985. La guerra italo-turca (nota anche come guerra di Libia) fu combattuta tra il Regno d’Italia e l’Impero Ottomano per il possesso delle regioni nordafricane della Tripolitania e della Cirenaica, tra il 29 settembre 1911 e il 18 ottobre 1912. Subsequent events prevented the return of the Dodecanese to Turkey, however. [35], At sea, the Italians enjoyed a clear advantage. In January 1912, French diplomat Paul Cambon wrote to Raymond Poincaré that Italy was "more burdensome than useful as an ally. The Ottoman naval presence at Beirut was completely annihilated and casualties on the Ottoman side were heavy. Il 23 febbraio 1912, si riaprì il Parlamento. Mustafa Kemal Bey Then, on 24 February, in the Battle of Beirut, two Italian armoured cruisers attacked and sank an Ottoman casemate corvette and six lighters, retreated, then returned and sank an Ottoman torpedo boat. The Italians rarely attempted a sortie. [49] The coalition that had defended the Ottomans during the Crimean War (1853-1856), minimized Ottoman territorial losses at the Congress of Berlin (1878), and supported the Empire during the Bulgarian Crisis (1885–88) had largely disappeared. [51] The swift and nearly complete victory of the Balkan League astonished contemporary observers. As a result, the Ottomans began using guerrilla tactics. Copertina flessibile Immagini delle campagne coloniali. The Italians, who were outnumbered but had superior weaponry, held the line. Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 4 feb 2021 alle 19:57. Italy also foresaw this result: Paternò Castello, in a July report to the king and Giolitti, laid out the pros and cons of a military action in Libya and raised the concern that the Balkan revolt that would likely follow an Italian attack against Libya might force Austria to take military action in Balkan areas claimed by Italy. di Alberto Caminiti | 1 gen. 2011. Another proposal for a diplomatic settlement was rejected by the Italians, and the Turks determined, therefore, to defend the province. The Italo-Turkish War saw numerous technological changes, notably the airplane. Ravenni - Le Guerre Coloniali d'Italia - Vallardi Editore - Milano, 1935, pp. During the conflict, Italian forces also occupied the Dodecanese islands in the Aegean Sea. La Turchia fu costretta a firmare il Trattato di Losanna (ottobre 1912) , l’Italia ottenne Libia e Dodecanneso che non abbandonerà più fino alla fine della II Guerra Mondiale. Copertina flessibile Attualmente non disponibile. Campagne di Libia (1913-1921) - Campagne combattute per ottenere il dominio del territorio e per far fronte alla offensiva dell' Impero ottomano durante la Prima guerra mondiale . [30] In the first military use of heavier-than-air craft, Capitano Carlo Piazza flew the first reconnaissance flight on 23 October 1911. Ministry of Culture of Turkey, edited by Turkish Armed Forces-Division of History and Strategical Studies, pages 62–65, Ankara, 1985. GUERRA DI LIBIA 1911-1912 2° GIORNO DI NAVIGAZIONE 19 APRILE 1912 Mi prende il mar di mare, come pure la buona parte dei miei compagni. The series of bilateral treaties between Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro that created the Balkan League was completed in 1912, with the First Balkan War (1912-1913) beginning with a Montenegrin attack on 8 October 1912, ten days before the Treaty of Lausanne. Turkey was in no position to reoccupy the islands while its main armies were engaged in a bitter struggle to preserve its remaining territories in the Balkans. Il suffragio enne steso a tutti i maschi con 30 anni d’età nel 1912 mentre quelli che avevano 21 anni potevano votare solamente se sapevano leggere e scrivere oppure se avevano frequentato il … La guerra di Libia - 1911. [46] The outbreak of the First World War with the necessity to bring back the troops to Italy, the proclamation of the Jihad by the Ottomans and the uprising of the Libyans in Tripolitania forced the Italians to abandon all occupied territory and to entrench themselves in Tripoli, Derna, and on the coast of Cyrenaica. Sulle azioni di quei mesi vedi sotto la voce Bengasi: Enciclopedia Militare - Il Popolo d'Italia Vol. The small December 22 Battle of Tobruk resulted in Mustafa Kemal's victory. [34] With this achievement, he was assigned to Derna War quarters to coordinate the field on March 6, 1912. Despite the time it had had to prepare the invasion, the Royal Italian Army (Regio Esercito) was largely unprepared when the war broke out. Also, the population was described as hostile to the Ottoman Empire and friendly to the Italians: the future invasion was going to be little more than a "military walk", according to them. e due milioni di relative munizioni. 144-160. Viram-se afetados por uma retidão cega e estreita que a própria Guerra Santa foi nada menos que um grande ato de intolerância em nome de Deus, o que é um pecado contra o Espírito Santo. | 1ª ed. [19] The Italian press began a large-scale lobbying campaign in favour of an invasion of Libya at the end of March 1911. The Libyan Economy: Economic Diversification and International Repositioning, Waniss Otman, Erling Karlberg, page 13, Matteo Caponi, "Liturgie funebri e sacrificio patriottico I riti di suffragio per i caduti nella guerra di Libia (1911-1912). [42][43], The main provisions of the treaty were as follows:[44]. l'autonomia della Tripolitania e della Cirenaica dall'Impero ottomano; il ritiro dei rispettivi funzionari sia militari sia civili dalla Libia e dalle isole dell'Egeo; l'amnistia per le popolazioni arabe che avevano partecipato alle ostilità; l'impegno a versare annualmente alla Turchia una somma corrispondente alla media delle somme introitate dalle province negli ultimi tre anni prima della guerra; la garanzia da parte dell'Italia della presenza di un rappresentante religioso del, da parte ottomana, la revoca dell'espulsione dei cittadini italiani (effettuata a giugno come ritorsione dell'. "1911–1912 Turco–Italian War and Captain Mustafa Kemal". However, the vagueness of the text, combined with subsequent adverse events unfavourable to the Ottoman Empire (the outbreak of the Balkan Wars and World War I), allowed a provisional Italian administration of the islands, and Turkey eventually renounced all claims on these islands in Article 15 of the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.[10]. The Italians blockaded the Red Sea ports of the Ottomans, while actively supplying and supporting the Emirate of Asir which was also concurrently at war with the Ottoman Empire.[37]. The First Balkan War broke out shortly before the treaty was signed. Storia delle fanterie italiane. A later Turkish attack had the same outcome. The only other relevant military operation of the summer was an attack of five Italian torpedo boats in the Dardanelles on 18 July. Turkey gave up its claims on the islands in the Treaty of Lausanne, and the Dodecanese continued to be administered by Italy until 1947, when after their defeat in World War II, the islands were ceded to Greece. Enciclopedia Militare - Il Popolo d'Italia - Milano - Vedi voce: Derna Vol. Il dibattito dei letterati italiani sull'impresa di Libia (1911-1912), Le isole italiane dell'Egeo dall'occupazione alla sovranità, Verso la quarta sponda la guerra italiana per la Libia (1911-1912), Libia 1911. The battleship Regina Elena also arrived from Tobruk. Storia delle guerre coloniali 1882-1943, Longanesi & C., Milan, 1971; See also Vedi: M.A.E. 5-9. Following the Anglo-Russian Convention and the establishment of the Triple Entente, Tsar Nicholas II and King Victor Emmanuel III made the 1909 Racconigi Bargain in which Russia acknowledged Italy's interest in Tripoli and Cyrenaica in return for Italian support for Russian control of the Bosphorus. [15] It provided that Italy would support Great Britain and its role in Egypt while the Italians would receive British support in Libya.