[135] Much like their affiliated orgainizations, the SS and the SD, the Gestapo "played a leading part" in enslaving and deporting workers from occupied territory, torturing and executing civilians, singling out and murdering Jews, and subjecting Allied prisoners of war to terrible treatment. Il famigerato capo della Gestapo, Heinrich Mueller, nel 1945 fu sepolto nel cimitero ebraico di Berlino. Storie di antifascismi (Archetipo, 2014) e ha curato Crimini di guerra. The Gestapo supplied the information which implicated the SA and ultimately enabled Himmler and Heydrich to emancipate themselves entirely from the organisation. [54] Homosexuals were correspondingly considered a threat to the Volksgemeinschaft (National Community). [116] 80% of all Gestapo investigations were started in response to information provided by denunciations by ordinary Germans; while 10% were started in response to information provided by other branches of the German government and another 10% started in response to information that the Gestapo itself unearthed. Runner Woman at Start Line on Red Athletic. [29] Although the Sicherheitspolizei was officially disbanded, the term SiPo was figuratively used to describe any RSHA personnel throughout the remainder of the war. This led to corresponding arrests, being sent to concentration camps and execution. The basic Gestapo law passed by the government in 1936 gave the Gestapo carte blanche to operate without judicial review—in effect, putting it above the law. Blacky conduce il suo nugolo di diseredati nel sotterraneo e lo riallestisce. From 27 September 1939, it was administered by the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA). [113] The information supplied by denunciations often led the Gestapo in determining who was arrested. [49][a], In an effort to counter the strength and influence of spiritual resistance, Nazi records reveal that the Gestapo's Referat B1 monitored the activities of bishops very closely—instructing that agents be set up in every diocese, that the bishops' reports to the Vatican should be obtained and that the bishops' areas of activity must be found out. [63], Between 1934 and 1938, opponents of the Nazi regime and their fellow travellers began to emerge. [114] Gellately has also suggested that the Gestapo was "a reactive organisation" "... which was constructed within German society and whose functioning was structurally dependent on the continuing co-operation of German citizens". Gestapo members Hermann Göring, Ernst Kaltenbrunner and Arthur Seyss-Inquart were individually convicted. Heinrich Muller, il comandante della Gestapo - la polizia segreta di stato del Terzo Reich - e tra i principali responsabili dell'Olocausto, sarebbe sepolto in un cimitero ebraico a Berlino. [94] Personnel assigned to these auxiliary duties were often removed from the Gestapo chain of command and fell under the authority of branches of the SS. For the most part, members of the church did not offer political resistance but simply wanted to ensure that organizational doctrine remained intact. [149], The trials began in November 1945. [98] The vast majority of Gestapo officers came from the police forces of the Weimar Republic; members of the SS, the SA, and the NSDAP also joined the Gestapo but were less numerous. Traduzioni in contesto per "of the Gestapo" in inglese-italiano da Reverso Context: I was at the headquarters of the Gestapo. For several leaders their punishment was death. [7] Diels was best known as the primary interrogator of Marinus van der Lubbe after the Reichstag fire. Groups like the White Rose and others, such as the Edelweiss Pirates, and the Swing Youth, were placed under strict Gestapo observation. His direct subordinate Adolf Eichmann headed the Gestapo's Office of Resettlement and then its Office of Jewish Affairs (Referat IV B4 or Sub-Department IV, Section B4). On 10 August 1944 15 captured partisans held at the prison, hand picked by Theo Saevecke, head of the Gestapo in Milan, were publicly executed at Piazzale Loreto and left on display, as a reprisal for a partisan attack on a German military convoy. Klaus Barbie - Head of the Gestapo in Lyon. Himmler also gained authority over all of Germany's uniformed law enforcement agencies, which were amalgamated into the new Ordnungspolizei (Orpo; Order Police), which became a national agency under SS general Kurt Daluege. [31] The specific internal departments of Amt IV were as follows:[90], In 1941 Referat N, the central command office of the Gestapo was formed. The Poles identified and tracked German military trains to the Eastern front and identified four Order Police battalions sent to occupied areas of the Soviet Union in October 1941 that engaged in war crimes and mass murder. Himmler's subsequent appointment to Chef der Deutschen Polizei (Chief of German Police) and status as Reichsführer-SS made him independent of Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick's nominal control. [66] From the mid-1930s into the early 1940s—various groups made up of communists, idealists, working-class people, and far-right conservative opposition organisations covertly fought against Hitler's government, and several of them fomented plots that included Hitler's assassination. [108] In Düsseldorf, the local Gestapo office of only 281 men were responsible for the entire Lower Rhine region, which comprised 4 million people. [3] This gave Göring command of the largest police force in Germany. Uno degli elementi più efficaci del nuovo regime fu la Gestapo, la polizia segreta nazista.. L'edificio, che oggi è la sede del Ministero dell'Istruzione e degli Affari Religiosi della Polonia, durante la Seconda Guerra Mondiale fu il quartier generale della Gestapo a Varsavia. Germanische-SS, Voci di forze di polizia presenti su Wikipedia, Referat N: ufficio centrale di spionaggio, Dipartimento C (amministrazione e affari di partito), Dipartimento F (polizia di frontiera e di confine), Personalità importanti uccise dalla Gestapo, comandanti in capo delle SS e della polizia, comandante in capo delle SS e della polizia, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gestapo&oldid=117652140, Voci con template infobox corpo civile senza categoria, Voci con campo Ref vuoto nel template Infobox corpo civile, Voci non biografiche con codici di controllo di autorità, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo, Boemia e Moravia, Jugoslavia e Grecia (D1), Territori occupati settentrionali e occidentali (D4). They were subject to co-ordination by inspectors of the security police and SD on the staffs of the local higher SS and police leaders, however, and one of the principal functions of the local SD units was to serve as the intelligence agency for the local Gestapo units. [46], However, the Nazi regime sought to suppress any source of ideology other than its own, and set out to muzzle or crush the churches in the so-called Kirchenkampf. [56], Between June 1942 and March 1943, student protests were calling for an end to the Nazi regime. [139], Throughout the Eastern territories, the Gestapo and other Nazi organizations co-opted the assistance of indigenous police units, nearly all of whom were uniformed and able to carry out drastic actions. [36], In 1942, the Gestapo discovered a cache of Polish intelligence documents in Prague and were surprised to see that Polish agents and informants had been gathering detailed military information and smuggling it out to London, via Budapest and Istanbul. [103] Heydrich thought along similar lines and advocated both defensive and offensive measures on the part of the Gestapo, so as to prevent any subversion or destruction of the National Socialist body. The stricter laws did not apply to lesbians as their behavior was never officially criminalized, even though their behaviors were labeled "deviant". [116], The popular picture of the Gestapo with its spies everywhere terrorising German society has been rejected by many historians as a myth invented after the war as a cover for German society's widespread complicity in allowing the Gestapo to work. Female youth leaders, lawyers, business administrators with experience in social work, female leaders in the Reichsarbeitsdienst and personnel administrators in the Bund Deutscher Mädel were hired as detectives after a one-year course, if they had several years professional experience. This groundbreaking miniseries explores a decade in the lives of the members of an extended Jewish family and a German lawyer who becomes a Nazi officer. [148], These groups—the Nazi Party and government leadership, the German General staff and High Command (OKW); the Sturmabteilung (SA); the Schutzstaffel (SS), including the Sicherheitsdienst (SD); and the Gestapo—had an aggregate membership exceeding two million, making a large number of their members liable to trial when the organisations were convicted. [141] While in many countries the Nazis occupied in the East, the local domestic police forces supplemented German operations, noted Holocaust historian, Raul Hilberg, asserts that "those of Poland were least involved in anti-Jewish actions. On th17 April 1941 the occupation of Yugoslavia by Nazi and Fascist forces was completed. [106] This admixture certainly shaped the Gestapo's public image which they sought to maintain despite their increasing workload; an image which helped them identify and eliminate enemies of the Nazi state. [78], Some Germans were convinced that it was their duty to apply all possible expedients to end the war as quickly as possible. As Evans makes clear, "...it was not the ordinary German people who engaged in surveillance, it was the Gestapo; nothing happened until the Gestapo received a denunciation, and it was the Gestapo's active pursuit of deviance and dissent that was the only thing that gave denunciations meaning. [125], Normal methods of investigation included various forms of blackmail, threats and extortion to secure "confessions". On 1 October 1946, the IMT rendered its judgement on 21 top Nazi figures: 18 were sentenced to death or to long prison terms, and three acquitted. Individuals in Austrian resistance groups led by Heinrich Maier also managed to pass along the plans and the location of production facilities for V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks, and aircraft to the Allies. Tali ufficiali rispondevano alle autorità delle SS in cui venivano distaccati. E’ Hoannes Tuchel, direttore del memorial della Resistenza tedesco, a spiegare: “La salma di Mueller venne tumulata nel 1945 … Although an agent in uniform wore the collar insignia of the equivalent SS rank, he was still addressed as, e.g., https://english.radio.cz/petscheks-palace-once-headquarters-nazi-secret-police-8575365, USHMM, "Law and Justice in the Third Reich", US National Archives, "German Police Records Opened at the National Archives", Avalon Project, Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, The National Socialist Document Center of Cologne, "From Nazi to Criminal to Post-War Spy: German Intelligence Hired Klaus Barbie as Agent (20 January 2011)", "Press Release nr00-52: German Police Records Opened at the National Archives", Festung Furulund – magasinet – Dagbladet.no, Collection of testimonies concerning Gestapo activity in occupied Poland during WWII in "Chronicles of Terror" database, Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion, National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden), German National Movement in Liechtenstein, German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia), Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party, National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement, Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen, Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys), Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls), National Socialist German Students' League, Persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), National Socialist German Doctors' League, National Socialist League for Physical Exercise (NSRL), Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina), South African Gentile National Socialist Movement, Office of the Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement (RKFDV), List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, Orders, decorations, and medals of Nazi Germany, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gestapo&oldid=996526227, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Norwegian-language sources (no), Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Reactionaries, liberals and opposition (A3). [130] "Selective terror" by the Gestapo, as mentioned by Johnson, is also supported by historian Richard Evans who states that, "Violence and intimidation rarely touched the lives of most ordinary Germans. [30] In January 1943, Himmler appointed Ernst Kaltenbrunner RSHA chief; almost seven months after Heydrich had been assassinated. A chilling, meticulous record of state brutality that is more compelling than any novel. Una fetta di torta e una tazza di tè con il capo della Gestapo. [65], During May 1935, the Gestapo broke up and arrested members of the "Markwitz Circle", a group of former socialists in contact with Otto Strasser, who sought Hitler's downfall. For example, in 1939 Stettin and Frankfurt am Main only had a total of 41 Gestapo men combined. Hitler vehemently rejected the centuries' old Habsburg pluralist principles of "live and let live" with regard to ethnic groups, peoples, minorities, religions, cultures and languages. On 26 April 1933, Göring merged the two units as the Geheime Staatspolizei, which was abbreviated by a post office clerk for a franking stamp and became known as the "Gestapo". @en.wiktionary.org. [77] Habsburg resistance fighter Karl Burian's (who was later executed) plan to blow up the Gestapo headquarters in Vienna represented a unique attempt to act aggressively against the Gestapo. Yet a significant number of them still worked against the National Socialist government. [144] Whereas in France, the number of members in the Carlingue (French Gestapo) who worked on behalf of the Nazis was upwards of 30,000 to 32,000; they conducted operations nearly indistinguishable from their German equivalents. AbeBooks.com: Hitler a Milano: I crimini di Theodor Saevecke capo della Gestapo (Italian Edition) (9788879811002) by Borgomaneri, Luigi and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices. Reports indicate that the Gestapo was caught unaware of this plot as they did not have sufficient protections in place at the appropriate locations nor did they take any preventative steps. [55] From the Nazis rise to national power in 1933, the number of court verdicts against homosexuals steadily increased and only declined once the Second World War started. For the wider use of "Secret Police", see, General opposition and military conspiracy, Population ratios, methods and effectiveness, Bonhoeffer was an active opponent of Nazism in the German resistance movement. [41] As a preface to this action, Hitler decreed May 1 as National Labor Day to celebrate German workers, a move the trade union leaders welcomed. [47] The extreme anti-Semitism and neo-Pagan heresies of the Nazis caused some Christians to outright resist,[48] and Pope Pius XI to issue the encyclical Mit Brennender Sorge denouncing Nazism and warning Catholics against joining or supporting the Party. [62] Efforts to resist the Nazi regime amounted to very little and had only minor chances of success, particularly since the broad percentage of the German people did not support such actions. [14] Himmler wanted to free himself entirely from Röhm, whom he viewed as an obstacle. Need to translate "THE ARMS OF THE GESTAPO" from english and use correctly in a sentence? [33], The power of the Gestapo included the use of what was called, Schutzhaft—"protective custody", a euphemism for the power to imprison people without judicial proceedings. mostra. [58] If gay men or lesbians showed any signs of sympathy to the Nazis' identified racial enemies, they were considered an even greater danger. [f], Several terms redirect here. [45] Increasing religious objections to Nazi policies led the Gestapo to carefully monitor church organisations. "[140] Nonetheless, German authorities ordered the mobilization of reserve Polish police forces, known as the Blue Police, which strengthened the Nazi police presence and carried out numerous "police" functions; in some cases, its functionaries even identified and rounded up Jews or performed other unsavory duties on behalf of their German masters. Instead of being exclusively a Prussian state agency, the Gestapo became a national one as a sub-office of the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo; Security Police). [91][92], In total, there were some fifty-four regional Gestapo offices across the German federal states. La Geheime Staatspolizei, comunemente abbreviata con Gestapo, era la forza di polizia segreta di stato della Germania Nazista. [109] "V-men", as undercover Gestapo agents were known, were used to infiltrate Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and Communist opposition groups, but this was more the exception, not the rule. [31] Müller remained the Gestapo Chief. Blacky e` diventato un leggendario capo della guerriglia. [32] During the Holocaust, Eichmann and his agency coordinated the mass deportation of European Jews to the Nazis' extermination camps. With their trade union flags waving, Hitler gave a rousing speech to the 1.5 million people assembled on Berlin's Tempelhofer Feld that was nationally broadcast, during which he extolled the nation's revival and working class solidarity. Nel caso delle SS, era l'amico personale di Hitler, Emil Maurice. In this, he ran into conflict with Schutzstaffel (SS) chief Heinrich Himmler who was police chief of the second most powerful German state, Bavaria. Given word has to be in the result, e.g. Employing biological metaphors, Best emphasised a doctrine which encouraged members of the Gestapo to view themselves as 'doctors' to the 'national body' in the struggle against "pathogens" and "diseases"; among the implied sicknesses were "communists, Freemasons, and the churches—and above and behind all these stood the Jews". Sprezzante dei gravissimi rischi cui si esponeva, affrontò impavido i pericoli e le insidie della polizia nazifascista che lo perseguitava e lo ricercava. [116][117] Work done by social historians such as Detlev Peukert, Robert Gellately, Reinhard Mann, Inge Marssolek, René Otto, Klaus-Michael Mallamann and Paul Gerhard, which by focusing on what the local offices were doing has shown the Gestapo's almost total dependence on denunciations from ordinary Germans, and very much discredited the older "Big Brother" picture with the Gestapo having its eyes and ears everywhere. della Gestapo. [99] In 1939, only 3,000 out of the total of 20,000 Gestapo men held SS ranks, and in most cases, these were honorary. Among the first to speak out were religious dissenters but following in their wake were educators, aristocratic businessmen, office workers, teachers, and others from nearly every walk of life. [10] Also on that date, Hitler appointed Himmler chief of all German police outside Prussia. The Vampire Diaries - Wikipedia. [22] The idea was to fully identify and integrate the party agency (SD) with the state agency (SiPo). [26] The Gestapo was specifically exempted from responsibility to administrative courts, where citizens normally could sue the state to conform to laws. The Gestapo had relatively few personnel and a mostly passive role in initiating investigations, as the surviving case files for the Dusseldorf and Wurzburg areas reveal. Three others—Hans Fritzsche, Hjalmar Schacht, and Franz von Papen—were acquitted. In lieu of naming convention changes, the original construct of the SiPo, Gestapo, and Kripo cannot be fully comprehended as "discrete entities", since they ultimately formed "a conglomerate in which each was wedded to each other and the SS through its Security Service, the SD". [44] For their part, this was the first time the Gestapo operated under its new name since its 26 April 1933 founding in Prussia. A similar co-ordination existed in the local offices. During World War II, the Gestapo played a key role in the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews of Europe. Tali ufficiali rispondevano alle autorità delle SS in cui venivano distaccati. [150] The IMT also convicted three of the groups: the Nazi leadership corps, the SS (including the SD) and the Gestapo. [67] One of the methods employed by the Gestapo to contend with these resistance factions was 'protective detention' which facilitated the process in expediting dissenters to concentration camps and against which there was no legal defence.